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  • About the Exhibition | Cultural Encounters

    ABOUT THE EXHIBITION no ocean between us Art of Asian Diasporas in Latin America & the Caribbean, 1945 – Present The fusion of different ethnicities is extremely important and gives rise to new cultural phenomena, migrants contribute recognizable elements despite the passage of time, in aspects of daily life, language, arts, ideas, values, and beliefs. — Mario Margulis and Birgitta Leander The richly and multifaceted cultural fabric of Latin America and the Caribbean cannot be fully understood without considering the great variety of threads woven by migratory processes from East, South, and Southeast Asia. No Ocean Between Us: Art of Asian Diasporas in Latin America & The Caribbean, 1945–Present , offers a fascinating glimpse of modern and contemporary art through an exploration of flows of migration from Japan, China, India, and Indonesia and the artistic impact in its host countries such as Argentina, Brazil, Cuba, Guyana, Jamaica, Panama, Peru, Mexico, Trinidad and Tobago, and Suriname. By framing artworks as active historical documents, artists in the exhibition reveal the multiple layers of complex and evolving cultural exchanges that have shaped the modern multiethnic societies of today. Although the initial Asian migration to Latin America and the Caribbean dates from the sixteenth century, it was not until the mid-eighteen century when it actively began due to labor shortages after the abolition of slavery in the Caribbean colonies in the 1830s. The new Latin American Republics, Brazil, Panama, Peru, Argentina, and Mexico along with the Spanish, English, and Dutch empires imported Asian indentured servitude as a low wage force for agriculture in most cases. ​ The artists in the exhibition explore themes related to the trans-Pacific and trans-Atlantic crossings of their own or their ancestors underscoring the expansive cultural legacies and transcultural processes. No Ocean Between US departs from the Organization of American States | Art Museum of the Americas permanent art collection to map familial and personal journeys through which art shapes discourse, seeking to gain a greater understanding of processes of contact and exchange, colonization and decolonization, assimilation and preservation of culture. The artworks shown here engage with many aspects of a quasi-system of slavery and more contemporary forms of globalization. They examine the difficult circumstances of arduous migratory journeys, exploitation and discrimination on sugar and tobacco plantations, and racial persecutions. While many of the thousands of workers who came to Latin America and the Caribbean in the nineteenth century and early twentieth century returned to their countries of origin, others settled down in their new homelands with cultural diasporas that attracted new Asian migratory flows after World War II. The Visual Arts Department of the Organization of American States, predecessor to the AMA | Art Museum of the Americas, recognized the contribution of the Asian diaspora to Latin America and the Caribbean as early as 1961 with the exhibition Japanese Artists of the Americas. Holding periodic art shows of Japanese Brazilian, Peruvian, Mexican, and Argentine artists as well as actively collecting them, it expanded an evolving canon of modern Latin American art. Similarly, in 1972 the exhibition Contemporary Art from the Caribbean: Barbados, Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago , the AMA addressed the importance of Indian and Chinese traditions within the fusion of elements that comprise Caribbean culture and society.

  • Acknowledgements | Cultural Encounters

    aCknowledgements The AMA | Art Museum of the Americas of the Organization of American States (OAS) and International Arts & Artists (IA&A) acknowledge all of the artists who are part of No Ocean Between US. We are grateful to the artists and their families who opened their homes and studios to us as we were developing the exhibition. A heartfelt thank you to the exhibition’s advisory committee: Brian Dursum, Michele Greet, Andil Gosine, Evelyn Hu-DeHart, and Naomi Moniz. We appreciate the expertise of the scholars who assisted us with research and writing, notably Grace Aneiza Ali, Mariola Alvarez, Alejandro Anreus, Roberto Cobas, Christopher Cozier, Alexandra Chan, Miho Hagino, Olga Herrera, Natalie Hopkinson, Ely Sayemi Iutaka, O’Neil Lawrence, Shira Loev Eller, Monique W. NouhChaia SookdewSing, and Michico Okano. AMA and IA&A also thank the institutions that opened their doors to us in order to conduct research, including Asociación Peruano Japonesa, Instituto Wifredo Lam, Museu Histórico da Imigração Japonesa no Brasil, and Museo de Bellas Artes de la Habana. We would like to thank those institutions that so generously loaned artworks for the exhibition: Arróniz Arte Contemporáneo SA de CV, Blanton Museum of Art, Cernuda Arte, Inter-American Development Bank, Mexican Cultural Institute, National Gallery of Jamaica, and Readytex Art Gallery. We are indebted to the fine essayists—Mariola Alvarez, Andil Gosine, and Evelyn Hu-DeHart—who contributed their copious knowledge and talents to the No Ocean Between Us catalogue. We also wish to thank the volunteers who helped us realize this project, especially Leilani Campbell, Suzanne Feld, and Rosina Porto. We are deeply appreciative of the financial support of the National Endowment for the Humanities and the E. Rhodes and Leona B. Carpenter Foundation; without their shared vision and early commitment to the project, it would not have been possible to realize an exhibition of this breadth and scope. Last but certainly not least, we would like to extend our thanks to our colleagues at AMA and IA&A, whose tireless work has made this project possible. ​ ​ Many thanks to all the artists in the exhibition: ​ Luis Nishizawa Tomie Ohtake Hiroyuki Okumura* Kiyoto Ota* Bernadette Persaud* Sunil Puljhun Sonnylal Rambissoon Dhiradj Ramsamoedj* Samuel Rumaldo Choy* Carlos Runcie Tanaka* Andrea Saito* Kazuya Sakai Venancio Shinki Kit-Ling Tjon Pian Gi Eduardo Tokeshi* Rene Tosari Yutaka Toyota Kazuo Wakabayashi Katarina Wong* M.P. Alladin Reinier Asmoredjo Kereina Chang Fatt Margaret Chen Albert Chong* Manuel Choy Loo Laura Fong Prosper* Tikashi Fukushima Richard Fung* Hisae Ikenaga Soeki Irodikromo Sri Irodikromo Arturo Kubotta Wifredo Lam Manabu Mabe Suchitra Mattai* Cisco Merel Choy Rosendo Merel Choy Wendy Nanan* * Denotes artists that are also lenders to the exhibition. ​ ​ Website Design by Rosina Porto Text by Adriana Ospina and Shira Loev Eller ​

  • Collection & Artists | Cultural Encounters

    Menu Japan - Peru Japan - Brazil Japan - Argentina Japan - Mexico China - Jamaica China - Cuba China - Panama China - Suriname China - Trinidad & Tobago India - Guyana India - Trinidad & Tobago India - Suriname Indonesia - Suriname Japan - Peru After Brazil, Peru is host to the second-largest Japanese population in South America, with approximately 80,000 inhabitants of Japanese descent. The Japanese legacy in Peru goes back to the late nineteenth century, when a shortage of indigenous labor led Peruvian planters to reach out to Asian countries for migrant workers; in 1899, the first Japanese immigrants arrived in a group of 790 to work on Peru’s cotton and sugar plantations. (As was the case in Argentina, the majority of Japanese migrants who settled in Peru were from Okinawa.) From 1899 to the start of World War II, the flow of contracted Japanese laborers to Peru was more or less continuous. While many Japanese returned to their homeland once their contracts had expired, others settled in cities like Lima to work as domestic servants and street vendors. By the 1920s, many had achieved commercial success; for instance, beginning around 1904, Japanese barbers created a substantial niche within their profession in cities such as Callao and Lima. Nevertheless, the Japanese in Peru faced a difficult assimilation. During World War II, for instance, Japanese-Peruvians suffered significant persecution, due to Japan’s role in the war and Peru’s close relationship with the United States. These attitudes led to such events as an anti-Japanese riot in 1940 and (in the US) the mass detention of Japanese-Peruvians in Texas. Despite these setbacks, the Japanese population in Peru continued to flourish during the 1950s and ‘60s. Renewed pride in their cultural heritage, together with their painstaking efforts to preserve traditional Japanese arts—while simultaneously embracing Peruvian culture—characterized this period, which was one of increasing acceptance of the Japanese by their fellow Peruvians. In 1990, Alberto Fujimori, a politician of Japanese descent, was elected president of Peru, winning two consecutive terms, and becoming one the most controversial and contested presidents in the history of Peru. Today, the Asociación Peruano Japonesa works with different generations of the Japanese community to promote arts and research. The association also maintains a museum of the history of Japanese migration to Peru. One of the many legacies of the Japanese influx to Peru is an array of talented artists of all disciplines and ages, representing at least three generations. These include Eduardo Tokeshi, Carlos Runcie Tanaka, and Andrea Saito, all of whom have developed a contemporary artistic language that bridges their Japanese heritage with their Latin American upbringing. Arturo Kubotta Andrea Saito Venancio Shinki Carlos Runcie Tanaka Eduardo Tokeshi In 1908, the transatlantic ship Kasato Maru anchored at the Port of Santos in the Brazilian state of São Paulo, bearing the very first contingent of Japanese migrants contracted for work on Brazil’s coffee plantations. After the failure of the European migration initiative of the second half of the nineteenth century, the Brazilian government turned to Japanese immigration as a lucrative way to settle entire families in the coffee-producing region, to both work and populate the land. The Japanese government’s (somewhat different) goal was to send workers to Brazil who could then return to Japan with economic capital. The Japanese migration to Brazil can be divided into three stages: the intensive influx period (1908–1924); the restriction period (1942–1953), in which immigration was restricted due to Japan’s role in World War II; and the postwar period (1952–1960s), during which Brazil authorized 9,000 Japanese families to work on agricultural development. Due to the Japanese vital role in its rural economy, Brazil—unlike other Latin American countries—chose not to expel its Japanese workers during WWII, despite the threat they could pose to national security. However, despite their economic importance to their adopted nation, the Japanese were not well treated by the Brazilian government, who had long regarded them as second-class citizens. This added to the numerous difficulties they faced upon arrival—such as the challenges of a foreign climate, culture, language, diet, and beliefs. Artist Tomoo Handa recalls that he and his fellow countrymen were forced to “live in a house without tatami (floor mat), to not use the kimono, to move aside the bowl and the hashi (chopsticks) and to drink coffee instead of tea.” Cultural influence, however, tends to be a two-way street. Today, the legacy of the vast Japanese-Brazilian community has thoroughly permeated the cultural landscape of São Paulo; notable examples include Tomie Ohtake’s public artworks and the many programs organized by Bunkyo (the Sociedade Brasileira de Cultura Japonesa e de Assistência Social ), which houses a research center and a museum devoted to the history of the Japanese migration. Another cultural boon of the migration was the creation of Seibi-Kai (Grupo de Artistas Plásticos de São Paulo), a powerful coalition of Japanese-Brazilian artists. By 1965, Seibi-Kai had 200 subscribers, ranging from sculptors to painters, including the famed artist Manabu Mabe. A legacy of this cultural initiative has been three generations of well-known contemporary Japanese-Brazilian artists. In 2008, the Instituto Tomie Ohtake published the book Laços do Olhar: Roteiros Entre o Brasil e o Japão, an ambitious research and exhibition project that tracked the vast cultural and visual exchange between Brazil and Japan. Tikashi Fukushima Manabu Mabe Tomie Ohtake Yutaka Toyota Kazuo Wakabayashi Japan - Brazil In the great migrations of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Argentina was second only to the United States as a haven for immigrants, many of them Japanese. The Japanese migration to Argentina throughout this period can be divided into two major waves. The first, which began around 1908 and ran into the 1930s, coincided with the first Japanese migrations to Brazil; the second wave began after World War II and lasted until the 1960s—when Japanese migration to Latin America in general fell off sharply, due to the newly booming Japanese economy. In both waves, the majority of the Japanese who arrived in Argentina did not migrate directly from Japan but entered the country by way of Brazil, Paraguay, the Dominican Republic, and Bolivia. Japanese immigration and settlement in Argentina followed virtually the same pattern as in Peru (which, like Argentina, drew most of its Japanese immigrants from Okinawa). In both countries, a significant majority of the migrants settled in the capital city, finding work as domestic servants, factory workers, and longshoremen; and, in some cases, eventually opened their own cafes, laundromats, and other businesses. Unlike in Peru, however, the Japanese in Argentina were spared the devastating disruptions of internment and relocation in the 1940s. There are now more than thirty institutions—including medical, immigration, education, and general aid associations, cultural centers, and clubs—that work throughout Argentina to support and preserve the Japanese-Argentine community and their traditions. A notable figure of the Japanese diaspora in Argentina is the celebrated artist Kazuya Sakai, whose works unify Eastern and Western influences, often shifting from abstract expressionism to geometric abstraction. Kazuya Sakai Japan - Argentina The first Japanese migrations to Mexico can be traced to the sixteenth century, to the inception of the Manila Galleon Trade (1565–1815), which drew migrants from Japan, China, and the Philippines to the Americas, to trade Far Eastern goods for New World silver. However, it was not until 1897 that Japanese immigrants began to enter Mexico in significant numbers, most of them arriving at the southern state of Chiapas to work in sugar and coffee plantations or in mines. By 1910, some 10,000 Japanese had settled in the country. With the end of the tumultuous Mexican Revolution in 1920, vibrant communities of cotton farmers, fishermen, and merchants began to flourish in Mexico's northern regions, such as Baja California. However, during the Pacific War—due to Mexico’s alliance with the US—entire Japanese communities suffered dislocation when the Mexican government forced them out of Pacific coastal areas and away from northern borders. This resulted in a mass exodus of Japanese to big cities, notably Mexico City and Guadalajara, where they eventually put down roots and established institutions, such as the Instituto Cultural Mexicano Japonés, to preserve their cultural heritage. In 2011, curator Miho Hagino organized the exhibition Crystal Jungle at the Museo Universitario de Chopo, which included a diverse range of contemporary artists of Japanese descent. Some, like Luis Nishizawa and Hisae Ikenaga, represent separate generations of Japanese-Mexicans, with their differing artistic viewpoints; while others, like Kiyoto Ota and Hiroyuki Okumura, have only recently moved to Mexico and offer a newcomer's perspective on this fascinating country and community. Hisae Ikenaga Luis Nishizawa Hiroyuki Okumura Kiyoto Ota Japan - Mexico Most of the Chinese migrants to the British West Indies—Jamaica, Trinidad, Guyana—belonged to the subethnic group Hakka of the Guangzhou (Canton) province of China; others came by way of Panama. The history of Chinese migration to Jamaica, as described by historian Patrick Bryan, can be divided into three periods. The first began in 1854—with the arrival of the first Chinese contract workers at Jamaican plantations—and ended in 1886, when the indentureship system was determined to be unsustainable, due to high costs as well as rampant violations of work contracts by plantation owners. The second period, which saw an influx of free businessmen (as opposed to indentured workers), lasted from the early 1900s to the 1940s. During this time, Chinese immigrants settled in Jamaica mostly as prosperous merchants in the grocery trade business, building a strong ethnic middle class. A salient feature of this era is the large number of Chinese women who migrated to Jamaica along with their husbands and fiancés, obeying a policy that was intended to prevent the Chinese from mixing with locals. Anti-Chinese sentiment likewise took a toll on the immigrants' businesses, many of which were wiped out in periodic eruptions of mass prejudice, such as during the labor riots of 1938. Additionally, one of the biggest obstacles faced by the Chinese in Jamaica was their difficulties with the languages of their new home, particularly Jamaican Creole. Nevertheless, Chinese businesses flourished, and a middle class gradually arose, along with a network of associations and clubs dedicated to preserving the Chinese community and traditions. The third migratory period began during the 1980s, when Hong Kong and Taiwanese entrepreneurs set up textile factories on the island, which were staffed by Chinese migrant workers. From these confluences of Chinese cultural, ethnic, and racial assimilation, Jamaica has nurtured a rich spectrum of modern and contemporary artists. Some of these artists, notably Margaret Chen and Albert Chong, embrace their (divided) Chinese identity in their work; others, while not directly addressing their Chinese heritage, illuminate other aspects of their identity, such as (in the case of Kereina Chang Fatt) the plight of the female artist in realms dominated by men. The National Gallery of Jamaica houses an extensive collection of three generations of works by Jamaican-Chinese artists. Kereina Chang Fatt Margaret Chen Albert Chong China - Jamaica The Chinese diaspora in Latin America and the Caribbean was a two-way process. On the one hand, it filled a demand for contracted labor following the end of the African slave trade; e.g., to fuel the booming Cuban sugar industry. On the other, a colonial expansion within China itself fostered internal movements that facilitated the migrations. The contract laborers, known as “coolies” (now a derogatory term), were drawn almost entirely from the vicinity of the Pearl River Delta, notably the city of Canton in Guangzhou province. A small number came from other provinces in the region, such as Fujian or the Portuguese colony of Macao. The nearby British colony of Hong Kong, meanwhile, refused to participate in this contentious practice. In Cuba, an initial period of open migration was inaugurated in 1847, when Cuba was still a Spanish colony, but came to a swift end in 1877 with the Treaty of Peking, which prohibited the transportation of Chinese people to Cuba under labor contracts. Plantation labor in Cuba had not changed significantly since the end of slavery; though the Chinese migrants were technically contract laborers, their treatment on the sugar plantations was unremittingly harsh. As was the case in other parts of the Caribbean, most of the Chinese laborers in Cuba were male. The Chinese population in Cuba played an active role in the wars for independence from Spain. Following Cuba’s independence in 1902, the United States—who between 1890 and 1920 led numerous military interventions into Cuba—wielded considerable influence on the new government. When US authorities limited Chinese immigration to the US in the early 1900s, Cuba quickly followed suit. Despite these laws, a steady, though now illegal, influx of young Chinese males continued to flow into Cuba in search of work. And even with the restrictions in place, there was a brief span—between 1917 and 1922—when free Chinese were permitted to migrate to Cuba to work in the sugar-producing regions or to open small businesses. Despite the discrimination they faced—both prior to and after Cuban independence from Spain—the Chinese assimilation in Cuba (and in the Caribbean in general) was more rapid than that of other Asian immigrants in the region, owing partly to its majority-male demographics. Chinese immigrants soon established niches within the laundry and produce industries, and built the Chinatown district in Havana, which at its peak supported two movie theaters, a cultural club, and several Chinese-language newspapers. The Cuban-Chinese community maintained strong ties with their cultural traditions and beliefs. After the Cuban Revolution of 1959, a substantial part of the Cuban-Chinese population left the island, the majority of them settling in the US. In the 1990s, Cuba initiated several rehabilitation projects in Chinatown, including the creation of La Casa de Artes y Tradiciones Chinas (the House of Chinese Arts and Traditions). One Cuban-Chinese artist who vividly embodies his country’s blending of cultures and ethnicities is the modern artist Wifredo Lam. Academics have tended to view Lam through the lens of the European avant-garde, singling out his debts to Picasso as well as his role in the surrealist movement; little has been written on the influence of his Chinese heritage on his work, which some even regard as nonexistent. More recently, however, scholars have begun to address Lam’s unique sensibilities from the point of view of the Chinese migration to Cuba. Wifredo Lam Katarina Wong China - Cuba Although there are other New World nations with greater numbers of Chinese, Panama—which has the fourth-largest population of people of Chinese ancestry in the Americas—is a special case in that it is a small country with a low overall population. The first significant wave of migration from China arrived in Panama in the 1850s, attracted by the California Gold Rush; this influx brought new life to the dormant project of linking Panama and the United States by way of an interoceanic railroad, whose completion was largely dependent on the labor of Chinese immigrants. Panama was soon a bustling transit point between China and such destinations as the United States, Cuba, and Peru. The Chinese in Panama soon developed a strong merchant class that shielded many of them from foreign exploitation; for instance, during the first, failed effort (by the French) to dig a shipping canal through the Isthmus of Panama in the 1880s, attempts to use Chinese as cheap labor did not succeed. Then, after Panama’s secession from Colombia—a direct result of intervention by the US in its own (successful) attempt to build the canal—the new republic of Panama adopted in 1904 strict policies intended to stem the tide of would-be immigrants. In spite of this, thousands of Chinese immigrants, many of whom entered Panama illegally, managed to assimilate into the new culture. The assimilation was an arduous one. From 1904 to the 1940s, the Chinese, widely regarded in Panama as indeseables (undesirables), were harshly persecuted. Their citizenship was revoked in 1941, only to be reestablished five years later; finally, in the 1950s, a new generation of Panamanian-Chinese professionals firmly established their indispensability to the small nation’s economy. Amidst these tensions, the Chinese community built a prosperous Chinatown district that in the 1970s reached its cultural and economic zenith. Today, Panama City has a new Chinatown, and the influx of immigrants from China continues to be steady. As a result of this unbroken flow of migrants—from China since the mid-nineteenth century, and from Taiwan since the late twentieth century—the Chinese community in Panama has become extraordinarily diverse. Today, acculturation and ethnic identity are signature themes of Panama’s numerous second- and third-generation Chinese contemporary artists; particularly Cisco Merel, Samuel Romaldo Choy, and Laura Fong Prosper, who, together, memorably address these issues in their collective #Panachina project. Manuel Choy Loo Laura Fong Prosper Cisco Merel Choy Rosendo Merel Choy Samuel Rumaldo Choy China - Panama The Asian diaspora in Suriname followed a very particular course, due to the unique challenges faced by the Dutch, who had colonized Suriname, in importing labor. The indentured workers who came to the inland Caribbean country to work on its sugar, coffee, and cotton plantations originated from three distinct Asian countries: China (2,600 people), India (34,000), and Indonesia (33,000). Even before the Dutch ended slavery in the country in 1863, the colonial government had begun relocating workers from Java to Suriname as early as 1853, following the success of the British in transporting plantation workers from India to Guyana; however, the transaction turned out to be too expensive, and not very appealing for the planters. China: Between 1853 and the 1870s, as part of its initiative to replace the slave workers, the Dutch government imported contract labor from Canton, Hong Kong, and Macao. This strategy proved too costly in the long run, as workers did not renew their contracts, choosing instead to open their own small businesses in Suriname or else return to China. In an attempt to make the contracts more appealing to both workers and planters, the government added travel benefits, such as return tickets to China, as well as initiatives to bring entire families to Suriname; but none of these efforts sat well with the planters, and in 1870 the Chinese indentured migration ended. From the mid-1870s through the 1930s, however, a new wave of “free” (unindentured) Chinese flowed into Suriname. Kit-Ling Tjon Pian Gi China - Suriname Richard Fung China - Trinidad and Tobago The earliest migration of Chinese workers to Trinidad can be traced to the year 1806, when the ship Fortitude arrived at Trinidadian shores carrying a group of Chinese men recruited from various parts of Asia. Chinese immigration nevertheless was meager until the 1834 British abolition of slavery created a shortage of field workers on Trinidad. Authorities responded by initiating the Chinese indenture trade, which between 1853 and 1866 brought at least 2,500 Chinese, most of them men, to work on Trinidadian sugar plantations. In the years that followed, this indentured labor force gradually diminished, as workers abandoned the plantations or bought out the remaining years of their contracts. This was followed by a wave of “free” Chinese immigration, wherein thousands of migrants fleeing poverty in China were allowed to settle and work in Trinidad without the burdens of indentureship. Meanwhile, thousands of formerly indentured workers, who had chosen not to return to China, built new livelihoods in Trinidad’s cities as tailors, cooks, barbers, and in other professions. The extraordinarily rapid assimilation of the Chinese in the Caribbean—and in Trinidad in particular—was driven largely by the majority-male demographics of the indentured migration, which resulted in Chinese immigrants marrying Caribbean women. India - Guyana The Asian migration to Guyana resembles, in many respects, the contemporaneous Asian migrations to Suriname and Trinidad & Tobago: in each case, Indian indentured laborers were systematically imported from the subcontinent of India, ostensibly to fill the labor shortage created by the British abolition of slavery. Guyana, however, was one of the British Empire’s most agriculturally fertile West Indian colonies at the time of abolition, and its sugar planters were particularly active in petitioning their government to import contract workers to replace the African slaves—all of which led to an unusually large influx of migrants from such countries as India, China, and Portugal. As with the migrations to Suriname and Trinidad & Tobago, the vast majority of these foreign workers were from India. The first two migrant vessels to arrive from Calcutta, the Whitby and the Hesperus, docked at Guyana on May 5th, 1838, with more than 300 men, 11 women, and 17 children. Despite the racial and cultural tensions under which they were forced to live during their servitude, Guyana’s Indian migrants—predominantly Hindus, with a small minority of Muslims—were generally allowed to maintain their traditions and religions. By 1917, when indentureship was finally eliminated, more than 230,000 Indians had settled in Guyana, making them the largest ethnic group in the inland Caribbean country. In 2017, the Guyana Indian Indentureship Abolition Association, together with the Publication Arts Forum, organized the exhibition Ganga Ship 1917: The Long Journey, which showcased the work of several generations of contemporary Guyanese artists of Indian descent, such as Bernadette Indira Persaud. In their artworks, Persaud and her fellow Guyana-born artist Suchitra Mattai shown the pressures, traumas, and yearnings experienced by migrants to Guyana and their descendants, largely from the point of view of women. Persaud's politically-themed work deals memorably with issues of freedom, repression, the transplantation of East Indian culture into Guyana, and power relationships between Caribbean cultures and other parts of the world. Mattai's work explores the intricacies of Guyana’s colonization, the various "gazes" of migratory actors, and the notion of “home”—all of which she situates within the framework of indentures and the interoceanic journeys of those who left their homes (and often their families) to seek work in Guyana. Suchitra Mattai Bernadette Persaud India - Trinidad and Tobago With the waning of Chinese immigration, British authorities next looked to East India as a source of indentured labor for Trinidad’s plantations. Most of their recruits came from Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. On May 30, 1845, the transatlantic boat Fath Al Razack arrived at Trinidad with 225 indentured workers, the first ripple of what would be of a massive wave of Indian migration. By 1917, due to pressure from Indian nationalists, the indenture system was abolished, and the flow of East Indian laborers to the island nation came to an end; by then, Trinidad’s Indian population had grown to more than 145,000. Compared to that of the Chinese, the assimilation of Indian culture in Trinidad was a relatively slow, complex, and syncretic process, due to its more gender-balanced demographics: labor recruiters in India often shipped entire families, whose languages, castes, and religions (primarily Hinduism and Islam) were important familial bonds. Eventually, Indian music, cuisine, art, and other customs achieved a partial assimilation by amalgamating with those of the host culture. M.P. Alladin Wendy Nanan Sonnylal Rambissoon The Asian diaspora in Suriname followed a very particular course, due to the unique challenges faced by the Dutch, who had colonized Suriname, in importing labor. The indentured workers who came to the inland Caribbean country to work on its sugar, coffee, and cotton plantations originated from three distinct Asian countries: China (2,600 people), India (34,000), and Indonesia (33,000). Even before the Dutch ended slavery in the country in 1863, the colonial government had begun relocating workers from Java to Suriname as early as 1853, following the success of the British in transporting plantation workers from India to Guyana; however, the transaction turned out to be too expensive, and not very appealing for the planters. ​ India: After the failure of Chinese indentured labor in Suriname, the Dutch government—still envying the success of the British in transporting Indian workers to Guyana—negotiated a deal with the British government to allow the Dutch to bring their own Indian labor to Suriname. One of the main concerns of the British was the high mortality rate of plantation workers in Suriname, so the deal they made with the Dutch stipulated that they should have a permanent consul in Suriname to oversee the management of labor and the treatment of the workers. However, despite the watchful eye of the British consul, the Dutch planters continued to run their estates more or less like slave plantations, and conditions for the Indian workers were unremittingly harsh. The first boat of Indian migrants arrived in 1873, and this brutal form of indentured servitude continued until 1916. Sunil Puljhun Dhiradj Ramsamoedj India - Suriname The Asian diaspora in Suriname followed a very particular course, due to the unique challenges faced by the Dutch, who had colonized Suriname, in importing labor. The indentured workers who came to the inland Caribbean country to work on its sugar, coffee, and cotton plantations originated from three distinct Asian countries: China (2,600 people), India (34,000), and Indonesia (33,000). Even before the Dutch ended slavery in the country in 1863, the colonial government had begun relocating workers from Java to Suriname as early as 1853, following the success of the British in transporting plantation workers from India to Guyana; however, the transaction turned out to be too expensive, and not very appealing for the planters. ​ Indonesia: The first major Javanese migration of workers to Suriname began in 1890 through the Dutch company Soesmans Emigratie en Commissie Kantoor. Despite the Dutch colonization of Java, migrant labor in Suriname had generally come from East India through British companies, as the importing of Javanese labor was more costly. Nevertheless, Javanese migration was part of a new political effort by the Dutch to become less dependent on the British colonial government in India. A second wave of migration from Java took place from 1930 through the end of World War II; this initiative encouraged entire families to settle in Suriname to help populate the country. Javanese culture in Suriname has since mingled with the nation’s other cultures, including Indian, Chinese, Indigenous, African, and Dutch. After the fulfillment of their contracts, many Indians and Javanese chose to stay in Suriname to continue working in the agricultural industry. Today, about 42% of Suriname’s population is of Asian descent. A legacy of the Asian migrations to Suriname is its remarkable range of artists, many of whom explore issues of identity, heritage, and tradition. For instance, Soeki and Sri Irodikromo—father and daughter artists who represent two generations of artists of Javanese descent—incorporate Javanese techniques and iconography into their work, together with elements of Suriname’s diverse culture. Another notable example is Dhiradj Ramsamoedj, who deals with issues of otherness, family bonds, cultural traditions, and his own intricate journey to discover his Indian heritage. Reinier Asmoredjo Soeki Irodikromo Sri Irodikromo Rene Tosari Indonesia - Suriname Back to Top

  • Cultural Encounters: Art of Asian Diasporas in Latin America & Caribbean

    China Peru Guyana Panama Jamaica Cuba Mexico Suriname Brazil Trinidad and Tobago India Indonesia Japan Argentina transpacific migration ASIAN MIGRATION TO LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN This map indicates the connection between points of origin and points of destination, but is not intended to illustrate travel routes. featured Collections Japan - Brazil ​ INDIA - TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO ​ China - Jamaica ​ INDONESIA - SURINAME ​ more >> Featured videos more >> Yukata Toyota ​ LAURA FONG PROPSER Featured artists Carlos Runcie Tanaka ​ Bernadette Persaud ​ WIFREDO LAM ​ Sri IrodiKromo more >>

  • Bibliography | Cultural Encounters

    Bibliography 4a. Grande Expoosiçião de Arte Bunkyo 2010. Brasil: ImpresaOficial / Sociedad Brasilera de Cultura Japones e de Asistencia Social, 2010. Alonso, Rodrigo. Kazuya Sakai, La Pintura Desde El Espíritu de La Música. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Museo de Arte Contemporáneo Buenos Aires, 2013. Anderson, Emily. Transpacific Borderlands. The Art Od Japanese Diaspora in Lima, Los Angeles, Mexico City, and Sāo Paulo. Los Angeles, California: Japanese American National Museum Los Angeles, California, 2017. Bernal, María Clara. “Latin America beyond Lo Real Maravilloso : Lam, Surrealism and the Créolité Movement.” Ph.D., University of Essex, 2004. Bryan, Patrick. “The Settlement of the Chinese in Jamaica: 1854-c.1970.” Caribbean Quarterly 50, no. 2 (2004): 15–25. Carvalho, Ana Cristina, and Denise Mattar. A.arte Dos Quimonos E as Gravuras Japonesas de Acervo Artístico Dos Palácios. Brasil: Museo Histórico da imigração Japonesa do Brasil, 2013. Castillo Vázquez-Vela, Alejandro. Hiroyuki Okumura, Memoria Y Sentido. San Luis Potosí, México: Museo Federico Silva Escultura Contemporanea 2016, 2016. Chang, Alexandra. Circles And Circuits Chinese Caribbean Art. Los Angeles, CA: Chinese American Museum, 2018. Chishuru Nakatani Sánchez, Emma. Estudio Preliminar Y Notas a: “Novela Escrita Por Carlos Nakatani. Historia de Su Propia Vida. México, 2002. Cho, Jane J. Asians in Latin America: A Partially Annotated Bibliography of Select Countries and People. Center for Latin American Studies, Stanford University, 2000. Chong Ruiz, Eustorgio. “Los Chinos En La Sociedad Panameña.” Panamá: Instituto Nacional de Cultura, 1993. “Circles and Circuits.” Duke University Press. Accessed April 18, 2018. www.dukeupress.edu/circles-and-circuits. Clunis, Srah Anita. New Possessions. USA: Museum of the Americas, 2006. Connell, Thomas. America’s Japanese Hostages: The World War II Plan for a Japanese Free Latin America. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002. Contreras, Daniel, and Juan Peralta. Tokeshi. Lo Que Queda Del Día. Arequipa, Perú: Centro Cultural Peruano Norteamericano, 1989. Cuando Oriente llegó a América: contribuciones de inmigrantes chinos, japoneses y coreanos. IDB, 2004. D Fong, Li. Li D Fong Journey Recollections. Zurich: ArteMorfosis - Galeria de Arte Cubano, 2017. De Juan, Adelaida, Alejandro G. Alonso, and Miguel Barnet. Nube de Otoño, Flora Fong. MA&G. Cuba, 1997. Denaro, Dolores. Flora Fong ART: ELIXIR OF LIFE. Zurich: ArteMorfosis - Galeria de Arte Cubano. Zurich, 2015. “Disqus Comments.” Accessed October 10, 2018. “EnCountering Cultures » A Brief History of Chinese Migration to Jamaica.” Accessed April 16, 2018. https://blogs.ats.amherst.edu/blst-452-01-1314f-ymartin14/sample-page/. “Exponen Esculturas de Hiroyuki Okumura - Diario de Xalapa,” September 11, 2018. https://www.diariodexalapa.com.mx/cultura/exponen-esculturas-1969904.html. Fukushima, Takashi. Fukushima. Brazil: Takashi Fukushima, 2001. Gafoor, Ameena. The Arts Journal. Vol. Volume 8 Numbers 1 & 2. Guyana: The Arts Forum Inc., 2012. ———. The Arts Journal. Vol. Volume 10 Numbers 1 & 2. Guyana: The Arts Forum Inc., 2014. Gómez Sicre, José. Manabu Mabe of Brazil Oils. Washington D.C: Pan American Union. 1962. Gosine, Andil “After Indenture,” Small Axe, Issue 53, Duke (2017) pp. 63 -67. Handa, Tomoo. Memórias de Um Imigrante Japonês No Brasil. Vol. 3. TA Queiroz, 1980. Hazlewood, Carl. “Carifiesta XI: Bernadette Persaud.” Carifiesta IX, 2013. Herkenhoff, Paulo. Manabu Mabe (1924- 1997): anos 1950 – 1960. Rio de Janeiro: Pinakotheke, 2012. ———. Roteiros Entre O Brasil E O Japao. Instituto Tomie Ohtake, 2009. ———. Tomie Ohtake Gesto E Razao Geometrica. SP Brazil: Instituto Tomie Ohtake, 2014. Historia del inmigrante japonés en la Argentina. Federación de Asociaciones Nikkei en la Argentina, Comité de Investigación y Redacción de la Historia del Inmigrante Japonés en la Argentina, 2005. Historian, Gerard A. Besson-Caribbean. “The Caribbean History Archives: Chinese Immigration.” The Caribbean History Archives (blog), August 24, 2011. Hoefte, Rosemarijn. In Place of Slavery: A Social History of British Indian and Javanese Laborers in Suriname. University Press of Florida, 1998. Hofte, RMAL, L. Djasmadi, and Hariëtte Mingoen. “Migratie En Cultureel Erfgoed: Verhalen van Javanen in Suriname, Indonesie En Nederland,” 2010. Hopkinson, Natalie. A Mouth Is Always Muzzled. Six Dissidents, Five Continents, and the Art of Resistance. New York: The New Press, n.d. Hosein, Alim A. “As New and As Old”: And an Exhibition of Selected Works (1984-2014). Guyana: Castellani House. The National Gallery of Art, 2014. Hosokawa, Shuhei, Koichi Mori, and Karen Tei Yamashita. Searching for Home Abroad: Japanese Brazilians and Transnationalism. Duke University Press, 2003. Hu–Dehart, Evelyn. “The Chinese in Cuba,” in Lingchi-Wang and Gungwu Wand, Eds. The Chinese Diaspora: Selected Essays. 2 Vols. Vol. 2. Singapore: Times Academic Press, 1998. Imigracao Japones - 100 Anos - Imagens Da Trajectoria Dos Imigrantes Japoneses No Brasil. Brasil: Sociedad Brasilera de Cultura Japonesa, 2007. Interiores, Kioto Ota. San Luis Potosí, México: Museo Federico Silva. Escultura Contemporánea, 2012. Iwasaki, Hitomi, and Herb Hoi Chun Tam. “Notes on Asian Invisibility in the Caribbean.” Caribbean: Art at the Crossroads of the World. New York: Museo del Barrio and Yale University Press, 2012. “Japanese Immigration to Mexico from the Mid-16th Century to the Late 20th Century and Mexico’s….” Accessed April 16, 2018. https://medium.com/@_KarenCamacho16/japanese-immigration-to-mexico-from-the-mid-16th-century-to-the-late-20th-century-and-mexicos-739033a981b4. Junqueira, Marci, and Victoria Arruda. Tomie Ohtake, Obras Publicas. Instituto Tomie Ohtake. Sao Paulo, Brazil: Instituto Tomie Ohtake, 2013. Kale, Madhavi. Fragments of Empire: Capital, Slavery and Indian Indentured Labor Migration in the British West Indies. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1998. Klintowitz, Jacob. Yutaka Toyota. Brasil: Museo de Escultura Brasilero, 2009. ———. Yutaka Toyota, a Leveza Da Materia. 8 vols. Sao Paulo: Instituto Olga Kos de Inclusao Cultural, 2012. Krishnadath, Ismene. Kit-Ling Tjon Pian Gi - De Kracht Van Vrouwen The Strength of Women. Paramaribo, Suriname: Publishing Services Suriname, 2008. Lai, Walton Look, and Tan, Chee Beng. “The Chinese in Latin America and the Caribbean.” In The Chinese in Latin America and the Caribbean, 1–4. Boston: Brill, 2010. Lama, Luis. Shinki XXII Bienal de Sao Paulo-Brasil, 1994. Lima, Perú: Venancio Shinki, 1994. ———. Venancio Shinki. Lima, Perú: Enlace Arte Contemporáneo, 1988. Leander, Birgitta. Europa, Asia y África en América Latina y el Caribe: migraciones “libres” en los siglos XIX y XX y sus efectos culturales. Unesco, 1989. Lesser, Jeff. A Discontented Diaspora: Japanese Brazilians and the Meanings of Ethnic Militancy, 1960–1980. Duke University Press, 2007. Lewis, Vel A. A Challenging Endeavor. The Arts in Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad y Tobago: Inter-American Development Bank - IDB Cultural Center Art Gallery, 2002. López, Claudia, and Enock Sacramento. Yutaka Toyota Sim, Pode Tocar! Brasil: Espacio Cultural Correios, 2012. López, Kathleen. Chinese Cubans: A Transnational History. University of North Carolina Press, 2013. https://doi.org/10.5149/9781469607146_lpez. López, Kathleen. “Memories of a Future Home: Diasporic Citizenship of Chinese in Panama.” Journal of Chinese Overseas 3, no. 2 (2007): 272–274. López-Calvo, Ignacio. Peripheral Transmodernities: South-to-South Intercultural Dialogues between the Luso-Hispanic World and “the Orient.” Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2012. Mabe, Manabu. Mabe. Raices Artes Graficas, 1986. Mabe, Manabu, and Norimichi Okai. Mabe, Chove No Cafezal. New Millenium, 1994. Mahabir, Noor Kumar. Indian Diaspora in the Caribbean. Serials Publications, 2009. Margulis, Mario, and Omar Martínez Legorreta. Europa, Asia Y África En América Latina Y El Caribe: Migraciones “libres” en Los Siglos XIX Y XX Y Sus Efectos Culturales. Siglo XXI, 1989. Mauricio, Jayme. Wakabayashi. Sao Pulo, Brazil: Cia. Melhoramientos de Sao Paulo, 1992. Miyada, Paulo. 100 101 Tomie Ohtake. Brasil: Instituto Tomie Ohtake, 2015. Mizrahi, Mayer. Wakabayashi Estações. Espaço Arte M. Mizrahi. Sāo Paulo, Brasil, 2015. Mohammed, Patricia “Beyond Geography or Closed-Circuit Ethnicities.” Asian Diasporic Visual Cultures and the Americas. No. 5 (2019) 1-9 pp. 2-3. Montero, Hortensia. Flora Fong, Una Nueva Dimension. La Habana, Cuba: Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, 2008. Morimoto, Amelia. “Japanese Immigrants in Peru.” Museum International 44, no. 1 (1992): 9–11. Motoyama, Shozo. “O Museu Histórico Da Imigração Japonesa No Brasil.” Comunicação & Educação 13, no. 3 (2008): 133–138. “mp_suriname2015.pdf.” Accessed April 24, 2018. http://publications.iom.int/system/files/pdf/mp_suriname2015.pdf. NouhChaia Sookdewsing, Monique. Readytex Art Gallery 2016. Paramaribo, Suriname: Readytex Art Gallery 2016, 2016. Okano, Michiko. Olhar in Comum: Japão Revisitado. 1a Edição. Curitiba - Paraná - Brasil, 2016. Okumura, Hiroyuki. Hiroyuki Okumura, Las Esculturas 1999-2013. Japan: Art Design Books, 2013. “Old and New Migrants from China to Suriname - Transnational Identities and Linkages, and Local Positioning.” Accessed April 24, 2018. https://www.nwo.nl/en/research-and-results/research-projects/i/37/20737.html. Onaha, Cecilia. “Historia de la migración japonesa en Argentina. Diasporización y transnacionalismo.” Revista de Historia 0, no. 12 (December 28, 2011): 82–96. Oxhorn, Philip. LARR Latin American Research Review. Vol. Volumen 51. 4 vols. Latin Americam Studies Association, 2016. Para Ler Antes, Durante, Depois E Sempre. Exposição “o Japão Em Cada Um de Nós.” Sao Paulo, Brasil: Banco Real, 2008. Peddie, Francis. “Una Presencia Incómoda: La Colonia Japonesa de México Durante La Segunda Guerra Mundial.” Estudios de Historia Moderna Y Contemporánea de México, no. 32 (2006): 73–101. Persaud, Bernadette Indira. Carifesta XI. Suriname: Culture for Development, 2013. Persaud, Bernadette Indira, and Ohene Koama. As New and As Old. Art Exhibition of Selected Works. Guyana: Castellani House. The national gallery of art, 2014. Pogodina, V. V. “Elizaveta Nilolaevna Levkovich-75th Birthday.” Acta Virologica 19, no. 6 (November 1975): 509. “portafolio.” portafolio. Accessed April 16, 2018. https://www.andreasaito.com . Prieto, Sonia. Yutaka Toyota, 50 Años de Arte. 1st edicion. SP Brazil: Sonia Prieto, 2009. Ramraj, Victor J. “The Distinctive Indo-Caribbean Art and Voice of Harold Sonny Ladoo.” Arts Journal: Critical Perspectives on Contemporary Literature 6, no. 1/2 (September 2010): 51–60. “Revista-Ipc-3-1-Jorge-Kam.pdf.” Accessed April 18, 2018. http://usma.ac.pa/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/revista-ipc-3-1-jorge-kam.pdf. Rojas, Marta. Flora Fong de China Al Caribe. La Habana, Cuba: Estudio - Galeria Flora Fong, 2009. Roman, Elida, and Luis Lama. Shinki. Lucia de la Puente, galeria de arte, n.d. Roopnarine, Lomarsh. Indo-Caribbean Indenture: Resistance and Accommodation, 1838-1920. University of the West Indies Press Kingston, 2007. Rustomji-Kerns, Roshni, Rajini Srikanth, and Leny Mendoza Strobel. Encounters: People of Asian Descent in the Americas. Rowman & Littlefield, 1999. Saito, Hiroshi, and Takashi Maeyama. Assimilação E Integração Dos Japoneses No Brasil. Vol. 4. Editora Vozes, 1973. Shinki, Venancio, and Galería ICPNA Miraflores. Venancio Shinki retrospectiva, 1960-2000. Miraflores, Perú: Galería ICPNA Miraflores, 2001. Simioni, Ana Paula. Colecao Folha Grandes Pintores Brasileiros Tomie Ohtake. São Paulo: Itaú Cultural, 2013. Sims, Lowery Stokes. Wifredo Lam and the International Avant-Garde, 1923-1982. University of Texas Press, 2002. Sologuren, Javier. Venancio Shinki. Lima, Perú: Galeria Cecilia Gonzalez, 1998. Strabucchi, María Montt. “Chinese Cubans: A Transnational History. Kathleen López.” Revista de Historia Iberoamericana 8, no. 2 (December 25, 2015). Suparlan, Parsudi. The Javanese in Suriname: Ethnicity in an Ethnically Plural Society. Program for Southeast Asian Studies Arizona State University, 1995. Tallamj. Hiroyuki Okumura, n.d. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=US5XMIHnT5I. Tam, Juan. Huellas Chinas En Panamá: 150 Años de Presencia. Juan Tam, 2006. 100. Tavares de Araujo, Olivio. Wakabayashi. Errol Flynn Galeria de Arte, 2015. 101. “The Arts Journal Volume 6 Numbers 1 & 2 – Kaieteur News.” Accessed October 10, 2018. 102. Tomie Ohtake: New Paintings. Museu de Arte Moderna do Rio de Janeiro, 1993. 103. Tomie Ohtake Obras Publicas. Instituto Tomie Ohtake, 2013. 104. Torres, Fernando. Venancio Shinki - Retrospectiva 1960-2000. Lima, Perú: Instituto Cultural Peruano Norteamericano. Galeria ICPNA Miraflores, 2001. 105. Tsuchiya, Tilsa. Tilsa Tsuchiyam, Maestros de La Pintura Peruana. Lima, Peru: Empresa Editora El Comercio, 2010. 106. TVMÁS. Más Cultura - Hiroyuki Okumura - TVMÁS, n.d. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YxjtnJGi8QY. 107. “University of Nevada, Reno, Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures, Christopher Gomez, and Darrell Lockhart. “Chinese, Japanese, and Korean Immigrants and Their Descendants in Argentine Audiovisual Popular Culture.” Nevada State Undergraduate Research Journal 1, no. 1 (October 25, 2014): 35–40. 108. Villacorta Chavez, Jorge. Carlos Runcie Tanaka. Lima, Peru: Fundacion Augusto N. Wiese, 2012. 109. Villacorta, Jorge. Carlos Runcie Tanaka, into White/Hacia El Blanco. Lima, Peru: Fundacion Augusto N. Wiese, 2009. 110. Villacorta, Jorge, and Roberto Astóniga. Carlos Runcie Tanaka. En Enlace Arte Contemporáneo. Lima, Perú: Enlace - arte contemporáneo, 2015. 111. Whittle, Janice, Monique Nouchala Sookdewsing, and Ismene Krishnadath. Short Stories. Kit-Ling Tjon Pian Gi. Paramaribo: Readytex Gallery Inc., 2012. ​ ​ ​ ​ Back to Top

  • Collections | Cultural Encounters

    collections Japan - Peru Japan - Brazil Japan - Argentina Japan - Mexico China - Jamaica China - Cuba China - Panama China - Suriname China - Trinidad & Tobago India - Guyana India - suriname India - Trinidad & Tobago Indonesia - suriname

  • Kit-Ling Tjon Pian Gi | Cultural Encounters

    Kit-Ling Tjon Pian Gi (Suriname, b. 1952) Kit-Ling Tjon Pian Gi was born in Paramaribo, and grew up in a Chinese household. Her father was a Chinese businessman. She received a Catholic education at local elementary and secondary schools, and began training to be a teacher at the Advanced Teachers Training Institute in Paramaribo in 1972. After four years at the Institute, she followed a longtime ambition and migrated to the Netherlands, where she attended the Academy in Tilburg, earning a visual arts and education degree in 1979. ​ It was not until 1988 that Tjon Pian Gi, after years of teaching, began to devote herself fully to being an artist. Her artistic career and output can be seen as an exploration of three main themes. The first of these is the nature of firestone (flint), and the second is womanhood, and her own struggles—as a professional, a mother, and a wife—to balance her career and family within a culture rife with biases about the role of women in society. In her own words, her work explores the “existing prejudices and barriers withholding talented women from becoming professional artists.” The third subject of her work is Suriname’s multicultural society; here, Tjon Pian Gi has created a compelling artistic vision of Suriname as a true melting pot of Creoles, Chinese, Hindustani, Javanese, and Dutch people. She has also examined, in her art, her own hybrid upbringing within a Chinese family in a Dutch colony in the Caribbean. Throughout her career, Tjon Pian Gi has focused mainly on painting and drawing; but, beginning in 2005, she has expanded her repertoire to encompass video and filmmaking as well. She is also an avid writer, whose books include The Strength of Women (2009) and Short Stories (2012). She has exhibited at Readytex Art Gallery, and in 2012 had a residence at Vermont Studio Center, USA. In 2013 Kit-Ling Tjon Pian Gi won the Bridget Jones Award. back to collection

  • Katarina Wong | Cultural Encounters

    katarina wong (b. United States) Born in the United States, Katarina Wong is a first-generation Cuban-Chinese American artist. She holds an MFA from the University of Maryland, a Master of Theological Studies degree in Buddhism from Harvard Divinity School, and a BA in classics from St. John's College, Annapolis, MD. Wong was born in the United States to a Chinese father who arrived during the Chinese Exclusionary Act era (1882–1943) as a “paper son,” and to a Cuban mother who came to the US in 1960, prior to the souring of diplomatic relations between the two counties. ​ Though born and raised in the United States, Wong sees her upbringing as deeply rooted in the Cuban heritage of her mother—who took her daughters on visits to the island as often as she could—and in the paradox of her father’s immigration to the United States. “In reality,” she explains, “the name Wong isn’t our family’s real name. My grandfather illegally emigrated to the US, and, as it was the Chinese Exclusion Act era, he wasn’t allowed to get his citizenship nor bring my father. As a result, a friend offered to claim my father as his son, and my father arrived on California shores (semi-)legally as a ‘paper son.’ In the transaction, my father took on the man’s name, Wong, and our family name was erased. He—and his children—lost one identity and gained a new one that carried the weight of America’s bitter history of immigration.” ​ Wong’s work employs symbols that emerge from mundane elements of Cuban and Chinese culture, such as in her multimedia series. These works reference iconic Cuban architecture, exemplified by the artist in her use of cement tiles painted yellow; as well as Chinese food carry-out containers, which—while very much associated with Chinese culture in the US—are actually an American invention. The combination of these two elements speak eloquently to who she is as a person and an artist. The unifying symbol of this piece combines a distinctive shade of yellow (one that is very common in Cuban architecture) with the Chinese character of her adopted last name, Wong (黃). Take Away ​ Wong’s work has been shown in major institutions such as the Art Museum of the Americas (in 2019); the Chinese American Museum and the California African Art Museum, both in Los Angeles as part of the 2017 initiative; El Museo Del Barrio; The Bronx Museum; The Fowler Museum in LA; the Nobel Museum in Stockholm, Sweden; Fundacion Canal in Madrid, Spain; and the Coral Gables Art Museum in Miami. She has received numerous grants and awards, including the Cintas Fellowship for Cuban and Cuban-American artists. Pacific Standard Time: LA/LA back to collection

  • Venancio Shinki | Cultural Encounters

    Venancio Shinki (Peru, B. 1932 – D. 2016) Venancio Shinki was born in Supe, north of Lima, to Kizuke Shinki, a farmer and merchant who had emigrated from Japan, and Filomena Huamra, an indigenous Peruvian. The Peru of Shinki’s youth was marked by social unrest and anti-immigrant upheaval; at one point, his Japanese hacienda school was shuttered, and his father had to go into hiding for a time. From 1954 to 1962, Shinki attended the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes, where his instruction was deeply influenced by European Informalism and American Expressionism. Shinki’s work evolved during the 1960s from informal abstraction to representation, as he gradually introduced more formal elements. During this time, he moved from the creation of spaces that play with the horizontal line—filled with what appear to be fragments of Peruvian Pre-Columbian huacas ("sacred monuments")—to bigger, dreamlike scenographies integrating earth tones and marble-like sculptures; and (most recently) a series of prints illustrating Japanese haikus. In an interview, Shinki’s widow offers insight into his work, describing how it went back and forth thematically with respect to his Japanese heritage. Significantly, it was not until 1999 that Shinki paid his first visit to Japan, where he was able finally to meet the family his father had left behind. Nevertheless, his lifelong body of work reveals a harmonious balance between Peruvian Pre-Columbian motifs and colors and Japanese elements—such as his manipulation of the horizon line, and his stylized use of Gutai elements in his informalism. In 1963, Shinki exhibited at the São Paulo Biennial and was introduced to José Gómez Sicre, founder of the Art Museum of the Americas. Impressed with Shinki’s innovative work, Sicre granted him his first-ever solo exhibition, which was held at the Organization of American States in 1968. back to collection